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March 27, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO PROJECT UPDATE 11

 
FINAL HADRON SPECS & REGISTRATION OF INTEREST
 


REGISTER YOUR INTEREST IN PURCHASING A HADRON AERO WHEEL SET HERE.
Those who register their interest will get 24h-advanced access to the Swiss Side Hadron shop page to make their purchase before it goes live to the public.


 
INSPIRED BY SWITZERLAND’S REVOLUTIONARY HADRON PARTICLE COLLIDER. DEVELOPED WITH PREVIOUSLY UNSEEN METHODS FROM FORMULA 1. AERODYNAMICALLY SUPERIOR THROUGH EXTENSIVE CFD DEVELOPMENT AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING. THE SWISS SIDE HADRON 625 IS PROVEN TO BE ONE OF THE WORLD’S LEADING AERODYNAMIC WHEEL SETS.


 


 
THE SWISS SIDE HADRON INCREDIBLE PRICE!

• €799 for EU customers (including VAT). Free Shipping on all EU customer orders.
• €665.83 + shipping: For all customers outside the EU (price excludes VAT).

Have you ever seen such a top level, top quality wheel set developed with over 58 years of combined F1 aerodynamic expertise brought to market for such a price? This is a world first!

And remember, Swiss Side has been completely open and transparent about the Hadron development process. See all the published development reports under www.swissside.com/hadron



Don’t live in Europe and want a better idea of the cost to you in your local currency?
Pricing conversion estimates:
• GBP: *£669 (includes shipping)
• AUD: *$1094 (includes shipping)
• USD: *$989 (includes shipping)
• CHF: *809 (includes shipping)

*The converted prices above are only estimates. Purchases made through the Swiss Side website will be made in Euro’s. At the time of purchase your credit card or your PayPal account will provide the currency conversion at their rate at the time of purchase.
*If you live in another part of the world and would like a cost and shipping estimate, please email us at contact@swissside.com
 


 
HADRON 625 AERO WHEEL SET SPEC

WEIGHT
• Front: 755g
• Rear: 931g
• Set: 1686g
*Weights do not include QR skewers or rim tape.
*Wheel weights may vary +/-5%

RIM
• Hybrid Alu/Carbon clincher construction
• 62.5mm deep aerodynamic profile
• 27mm ‘Toroidal’ profile width
• 23mm aluminium braking surface width

SPOKES
• Sapim CX-Ray straight pull aero bladed spokes
• Material: Stainless steel
• Colour: Black with 3 x Swiss Side red-white-red signature spokes on each wheel
• Stealth hidden brass nipples (blackened finish)
• FRONT: 18 radial spokes
• Rear: 24 (2:1 pattern) spokes, 2-Cross

HUB
• Precision forged & CNC machined 6061/T6 aluminium hub body
• Patented internal drive system with Micro Shuffle paw technology
• Premium Enduro sealed pack bearings providing ultra low friction for maximum return on input
• Light weight forged & CNC machined hard anodized aluminium cassette body
• Ceramic bearing upgrade option available

COMPATIBILITY
• Shimano (fits 8, 9, 10 & 11 speed cassettes)
• Campagnolo (fits 10 & 11 speed cassettes)
*All Swiss Side wheels ship with a pre-installed Shimano cassette body. Campagnolo cassette bodies are available separately upon request.

ASSEMBLY
• Hand built craftsmanship & quality
• Multi-pass spoke tension & release truing process
• Shimano cassette body supplied and installed

PACKAGE INCLUDES
• Front Wheel
• Rear wheel (with Shimano cassette body installed)
• QR Skewers (Front and Rear).
• High pressure reinforced rim tape with Swiss Side logo print.
• Spare / replacement spokes.
• Swiss Side stickers, product information & warranty cards
 


 
CERAMIC BEARING UPGRADE OPTION

Following mixed opinions in our public survey regarding the importance of the Hadron wheel set having ceramic bearings as standard (with the additional associated cost), we have decided to keep the cost out of the price and give those who feel ceramic bearings are important the option to purchase the upgrade separately. As part of this upgrade our Swiss Side service center will install the bearing upgrade before delivery. We’re excited to offer this performance upgrade and installation for only €125.

Down the road if you find yourself wishing that you’d made the ceramic bearing upgrade choice when you purchased the wheel set, you’ll be happy to know that you can ship your wheel set to our service center where for the same price they will install the bearing upgrade and provide a free service.

*This bearing upgrade option is also available for the Franc and Gotthard wheel sets.
*Please allow an additional 4 to 5 days for delivery when ordered wheels with this ceramic bearing upgrade.
 


 
DELIVERY INFORMATION

Hadron orders are expected to ship from our UK warehouse to customers on June 30th, 2014

Estimated delivery details:
• Switzerland – 3 to 4 business days, shipped with TNT
• UK – 2 to 3 business days, shipped with Parcelforce
• Continental Europe – 2 to 4 business days, shipped with Parcelforce
• Australia – 7 to 9 business days, shipped with TNT
• USA – TNT – 5 to 8 business days, shipped with TNT

*Delivery dates are only estimates and maybe affected by external factors such as courier delivery delays or local authorities.

TAXES & DUTIES
For deliveries to countries outside of the EU, taxes and duties may be charged to you by your local authorities upon receiving your goods.
If you are unsure, we suggest checking with your local authorities before making a purchase.
 


 
HELP US PLAN FOR THE HADRON DEMAND! REGISTER NOW!

In order to optimise our production schedule we’d like the help and feedback from our followers who are looking to purchase a Hadron wheel set.

The first production batch Hadron wheel sets will be released for pre-order sale on the 15th of April (delivery dispatch on 30th of June).
Quantities will be limited and we expect to sell out immediately.

By registering your interest NOW you will help us plan the speed and volume at which we produce the Hadron.
The registration is NON-BINDING however and we ask you to help us by only registering if you are genuinely interested and intend to make a purchase.

For customers that pre-order a Hadron aero wheel set on the 15th of April we will be including a FREE BONUS set of Swiss Side accessories valued at €100!
• Free Swiss Side double padded wheel bag valued at €59
• Free spoke adjustment tool valued at €15
• Free Swiss Side fluid bottle valued at €26
 


REGISTER YOUR INTEREST IN PURCHASING A HADRON AERO WHEEL SET HERE.
Those who register their interest will get 24h-advanced access to the Swiss Side Hadron shop page to make their purchase before it goes live to the public


 

March 20, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO PROJECT UPDATE 10

 
THE HADRON AERO WHEEL GRAPHICS DECISION
After weeks of deliberation and a substantial amount of consumer feedback… Swiss Side has made their choice.

Zurich, Switzerland – March 20, 2014 – Swiss Side is proud to announce that they have made it to the all important graphics selection stage of the Hadron Aero Wheel Project. Several weeks ago, the Hadron development team opened up the selection process to consumers by releasing a survey that everyone was welcome to fill out and let their voices be heard on what they believed was the best graphics direction (click here to view survey). Using this input from followers in over 30 countries around the world, the final graphic design has been defined. Swiss Side now unveils the new Hadron Aero Wheel graphic to the world!.



“We are very proud of the new Hadron graphic. As always, it has the unique flavor of graphic design style synonymous with the Swiss Side brand,” says George Cant, Swiss Side Creative Director. “The design queues are taken strongly from the Large Hadron Collider here in Switzerland. Whilst keeping the styling unique we’ve kept it slightly understated to best fit with any bike design.”



“Many thanks to our followers who gave us great feedback on our six short listed design concepts,” says Jean-Paul Ballard, Swiss Side Technical Director. “As a brand run by cyclists for cyclists, engaging with our followers is a cornerstone of our business practice. Once again, this has yielded fantastic results!”



In our Update 8 we once again reached out to the public to give us their input on 6 graphic design concepts for the new Swiss Side Hadron aero wheel. Once again we had a fantastic response from over 30 countries across the globe! Many thanks to all those who took part in the survey.

In deciding which graphic design to choose, as always at Swiss Side, we took a scientific approach in setting up the survey questions as well as in analysing the data.

In the survey we asked people to rate each design on a scale of 1-5. The final question of the survey was a ‘control question’ where people were asked which single design they would pick if they had to choose just one. In analysing the results, the ratings of each design were given points (again 1-5) and summed to give a score for each design- ‘% Combined Score’. The final control question similarly also resulted in a score- ‘% One Off Value’.

The two scores were then combined with a 60%-40% weighting respectively to give a final ‘% Total Weighted Result’. All the results were then plotted together on a graph for visual analysis.

The winner with the best ‘%Total Weighted Result’ was Option C. This also gave the most consistent result showing that it was also in general the most liked design.
Also important was that the chosen design fitted with the Swiss Side ethos of graphic design styling. Option C definitely fitted the bill in this respect so was well received and accepted by our graphic design team.
 

HADRON AERO WHEEL SET – GRAPHIC CONCEPTS

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – A

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – B

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – C

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – D

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – E

 

Q: PLEASE RATE CONCEPT – F

 

Q: OVERALL, WHICH IS YOUR FAVORITE HADRON WHEEL GRAPHIC?

 
 

NEXT UP…
Stay tuned for our next updates:

 

‘Hadron overview and pre-order registration’.
We’ll be announcing all the Hadron details you’ve been waiting for:
- The final production wheel set spec.
- Pricing
- Shipping and delivery dates.
- Where, when and how to purchase.

This will also be your first opportunity to register your interest in purchasing a Hadron wheel set.
 

‘First Hadron Production Sample Set Testing’.

We take a look at the first Hadron sample wheel sets and put them to the test!

 

 

If you haven’t followed the rest of the Hadron development process, catch up at www.swissside.com/hadron  or click on the installment you are interested in below:

 

UPDATE 1- SWISS SIDE HADRON INTRODUCTION

UPDATE 2- SWISS SIDE HADRON INITIAL SPECIFICATION

UPDATE 3- HAVE YOUR SAY IN THE HADRON SURVEY

UPDATE 4- CFD (COMPUATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS) OPTIMISATION

UPDATE 5- HADRON SURVEY INITIAL RESULTS

UPDATE 6- STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS

UPDATE 7- CFD OPTIMISATION RESULTS

UPDATE 8- HADRON GRAPHIC DESIGN SURVEY

UPDATE 9- WIND TUNNEL TESTING METHODS & RESULTS

 

 

Don’t forget to sign up to our update newsletter for a chance to win a set of Hadrons! You can do so on the Hadron page: www.swissside.com/hadron
 

February 25, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO PROJECT UPDATE 9

 
WIND TUNNEL TESTING METHODS & RESULTS.

 

SAME DRAG with LESS SIDEFORCE than the best 80+mm deep ‘big brand’ wheels! …HADRON IS HERE!

Following months of aerodynamic optimisation work in CFD and the extremely positive results achieved (see ‘Update 7’ http://www.swissside.com/735), it was time to put the final Hadron designs to the test in the wind tunnel. The entire development methodology where a weighting system driving both the drag as well as side-force performance measures, across the entire cross-wind angle range, was put to the ultimate test.

…And the Hadron performed amazingly well, proving to outperform what is regarded to be the world’s leading aero wheel set!

Swiss Side assembled what would undoubtedly be considered the most experienced aerodynamics team to ever take part in a wind tunnel test in the bicycle industry! The team of aerodynamicists had a combined experience of over 50 years in Formula 1 aerodynamics and wind tunnel testing.

The purpose of the test was not only to test the Hadron back-to-back against the world’s best aero wheels, but also to evaluate the different methods of testing, with the goal of defining which is the most representative and efficient way for testing bicycle wheels in the wind tunnel. In addition, all of Swiss Side’s other wheel models including the Heidi, Franc, Gotthard andMatterhornwere tested against their respective leading brand competitor models, in order to determine where they sit on the aerodynamic leader board.

 

1. TESTING METHODS

There are varying opinions on the most representative wind tunnel testing methods for bicycle wheel development. At Swiss Side, we are careful to remain objective and scientific about our engineering approach and we let the data do the talking. Therefore, using the vast experience in aerodynamics and wind tunnel testing within our team, we decided to evaluate multiple methods for the wheel testing. Below is a table describing the various relevant testing methods together with the pros and cons of each. Highlighted in grey are the methods chosen to evaluate in the wind tunnel.

The Basics:
The wheel or complete bike with wheels are setup in the test section, held in place by stays which are linked to extremely accurate balances below the floor, capable of measuring all the forces and moments which act on the bike mounted above. For the purposes of our bike wheel testing, we are mainly interested in drag and side force. The wind tunnel facility Swiss Side chooses to use has an ‘open jet’ test section. The wheels rest on rollers which are driven by electric motors to rotate the wheels at the correct speed relative to the airspeed in the test section. The entire installation can be rotated on a turntable in the test section to simulate a wide range of yaw (cross-wind) angles. The wind tunnel can be run at various airspeeds, our primary test speed being 45km/h. When a test is conducted, the data from the balances are logged continuously together with the airspeed, air temperature, pressure and density. The balance ‘zeros’ are also recorded before and after each run.
 
Repeatability:
One of the most important factors for wind tunnel testing is the repeatability. During the testing session, repeated tests of a given configurations are performed. The results of these repeats should be as identical as possible. Without ensuring adequate repeatability of identical configurations, then the comparison of results between different configurations cannot be reliably made. This is a fundamental principle of wind tunnel testing whether it be in Formula 1 or for testing bicycle wheels.

 
How real is real enough?:
As a part of our CFD investigations and the model setup, we had already evaluated numerous configurations including stand-alone wheel, wheel with partial bike frame, complete bike and complete bike with rider. From this it was possible already to analyse and understand the flow fields to determine which elements influence the wheel performance, and which are required for ensuring a realistic simulation. It was noted, for example, that that upper torso isn’t important for measuring relative wheel performance.

In addition, members of our team had extensive experience with wind tunnel testing using static human dummies and the extreme challenges that this method poses for repeatability. Even the smallest movements of the static dummy between runs (for example when changing wheels), can lead to significant changes to the flow field and the measurement results. The rider accounts for 75% – 80% of the total drag on a road bike. So even the smallest movement of a dummy in the wind tunnel causes large changes in the drag force measured which can completely swamp the relatively small force differences measured between the various test wheels.

Testing with static dummies was therefore ruled out. Nonetheless, we were still interested in verifying if dummy legs had a significant impact on the flow field in the wind tunnel and, in turn, on the relative test results and trends between different wheels. To do this in a repeatable way, the only method was to use dynamic (moving) legs which would pedal. The sampling time for each yaw (cross-wind) angle was increased so that the measured data could be averaged over numerous pedal rotations.

In addition, two less complicated configurations were also evaluated- front wheel alone and wheels on complete bike frames. Note that both road bike frame as well as time trial frame geometries were tested.

 
What was tested?:
Hadron prototype wheel sets were constructed using rapid prototype (3D-printed) covers. These were tested back-to-back against various ‘big brand’ aero wheels of various profile depths, including what is regarded as the world’s leading deep profile aero wheel.

In addition, all of the top end Swiss Side wheel models (Heidi, Franc, Gotthard & Matterhorn) were tested against their ‘big brand’ counterparts to establish their relative aerodynamic performance.

All wheels were tested with the same tyres and tyre pressure. In addition, various other tyres were tested to establish the tyre shape sensitivity on the aerodynamic performance of the wheels.

Smoke visualisation was also conducted and high speed photographs made in order to correlate the flow fields with the CFD flow visualisations. The smoke visualisations also make for great marketing material!

One of the Hadron prototype wheel sets, built using structural rims with non-structural rapid prototype covers.

 

2. RESULTS
 
Different testing methods – Conclusions:

 

All three testing methods  (1. Front wheel only;   2. Wheels on complete bike frame;   3. Complete bike with dynamic leg dummy) offered good consistent and repeatable results. Moreover, the relative performance offsets measured between the different wheels was the same independent of the testing method.

Nonetheless, some interesting effects were observed with the complete bike and dynamic leg configurations, which offered good directions for future development.

The ‘front wheel only’ tests offer the best resolution for demonstrating the relative wheel performance. The following graphs show the results. Again, the relative wheel performance offsets and characteristics are the same as with the complete bike simulation methods.

 

Drag Results-  Hadron:


***World’s best deep profile aero wheel-  reference wheel for Hadron comparison.

 

The benefits of the Swiss Side Hadron (62.5mm deep profile) seen in this graph are:

-         Stall point delayed from 11° to 14° yaw compared to reference wheel (82mm profile).

-         Almost identical drag magnitude and characteristics as reference wheel but with lower overall drag at high yaw angles.

-         Negative drag (thrust) consistently achieved from 13° to 15°.

-         Huge performance advantage over equivalent ‘Big Brand’ 60mm aero wheel model.

-         Very poor aero performance of ‘Big Brand’ externally machined wheel shown for reference.

 

Side Force Results-  Hadron:


***World’s best deep profile aero wheel-  reference wheel for Hadron comparison.

 

The benefits of the Swiss Side Hadron seen in this graph are:

-         Significant reduction in side force compared to reference wheel, with increasing reduction with increasing yaw angle:  Greater than -20% at high yaw angles.

-         Note that reduced side force shown by the inferior drag performance wheels is normal. The lower drag effect of good aero wheels comes from the flow remaining attached (not stalling). The attached flow produces lift as on an aircraft wing. This lift is the side force. It is not possible to have low drag in cross-wind without generating side force. The Hadron however successfully achieves an improved balance of low drag together with lower side force compared to the reference wheel.

Drag Results-  All wheels:


***World’s best deep profile aero wheel-  reference wheel for Hadron comparison.

 

All of Swiss Side’s wheel models outperformed their equivalent ‘Big Brand’ counterparts across the range. Some observations from the test results are:

-         Swiss Side Matterhorn (30mm carbon climbing wheel) offers extraordinary aero performance for this profile depth, showing typical aero wheel characteristics with delayed stall until 7.5°. It massively outperforms its ‘Big Brand’ equivalent wheel model in aerodynamic performance.

-         Swiss Side Franc, with its wide bladed Sapim ‘Aero’ spokes offers a slight improvement in aero performance over its lighter weight brother, the Swiss Side Gotthard.

-         Swiss Side Heidi & Heidi Shadow offer excellent aerodynamic performance for a 23mm profile wheel, almost on par with the Gotthard.

-         The competitor wheels with externally machined rims for reinforced spoke attachment, showed extremely poor aerodynamic characteristics. These are the only wheels which increase drag with cross-wind.

Side Force Results-  All wheels:


***World’s best deep profile aero wheel-  reference wheel for Hadron comparison.

 

The side force characteristics of Swiss Side’s other wheel models was as expected. Some observations from the results are:

-         Swiss Side Matterhorn showed an elevated side force response due to the low drag, lifting effect in the pre-stall region up to 7.5° yaw. After the stall point, the side force drops to similar levels of the other less aerodynamic wheels.

-         Swiss Side Heidi & Heidi Shadow offered the lowest side force which is in line with its drag response.

-         Again the competitor wheels with externally machined rims for reinforced spoke attachment, showed the highest side force levels of the lower profile wheel models.

 

3. ANALYSIS – What these results mean in the real world?
 
Final Performance Results:

 

Referring back to our previously published ‘Update 4’ (http://www.swissside.com/735) and ‘Update 7’ (http://www.swissside.com/596), it is again important to highlight that the entire Hadron development process was designed to produce a wheel which gives the best all-round real world aerodynamic efficiency and consequently the best overall real world performance. For this reason, the performance weighting system was implemented, taking into account both drag as well as side force.

The final performance results relative to what is regarded as the world’s best deep profile aero wheel, against which the Hadron was tested back-to-back, are:


So for a slight 1.1% increase in drag, the Hadron offers 5.9% reduction in side force, combined with a delayed stall characteristic and improved high cross-wind angle performance. Note that these characteristics in particular also offer benefits at low riding speed because for a given wind speed, the effective cross-wind angle is higher. Based on an aerodynamic efficiency performance function which gives a 70% weighting to drag and a 30% weighting to side force:

 

The Swiss Side Hadron offers a 1% performance
improvement over the world’s best aero wheel.

Note that this has been achieved with a lower 62.5mm profile compared with larger 80+mm profiles of the Hadron’s direct competitors. Also importantly, this wheel will be an aluminium-carbon hybrid clincher, with a 23mm wide braking track (therefore offering ideal interchangeability with other wheels) and will be competitive in weight to its full carbon competitors. Finally, not to be forgotten:

 

The Swiss Side Hadron will be less than 50% the cost of the
world’s best aero wheel and other ‘Big Brand’ equivalents.

What does this mean in more simple terms?:
As aerodynamic efficiency is hard to gauge, we have made an equivalent calculation of what this means in terms of weight on a bike.

 

A cyclist climbing a 10% gradient at 10km/h, with a total rider + bike weight of 80kg, requires a power output of approximately 235W. For every additional kilogram weight, the power output increases by approximately 3W.

 

The difference in terms of aerodynamic performance between a typical low profile wheel such as the Swiss Side Heidi and the highly aerodynamically developed Swiss Side Hadron is 10W of power*.

*(Based on aerodynamic drag measured at 45km/h). 

 

So based on these calculations, aerodynamic efficiency can be easily equated to weight:

 

The Swiss Side Hadron can offer a 10W power
saving over a typical low profile wheel.
 
10W is the equivalent of 3kg weight on a bike.

In the context of power outputs, significant drag savings were measured with the time trial bike over the standard road bike. The relative wheel performance offsets and characteristics however remained unchanged. Using the weighted average drag data, the power saving of the time trial bike frame tested, directly compared with the road bike frame was in the order of 37W!


 
Further Photo and Video:

A photo gallery of the Swiss Side wind tunnel test can be viewed here:

http://www.swissside.com/hadron/hadron-wind-tunnel-test-photos

 

Video of the Swiss Side wind tunnel test can be viewed here:

http://www.swissside.com/hadron/hadron-aero-wheel-is-coming

 

 

 

NEXT UP…

Stay tuned for our next updates:

 

‘Graphic Design Survey Results & Final Graphics’.

We’ll present the final Hadron graphic design based on the results of your feedback via our survey.

 

‘First Hadron Production Sample Set Testing’.

We take a look at the first Hadron sample wheel sets and put them to the test!

 

 

If you haven’t followed the rest of the Hadron development process, catch up at www.swissside.com/hadron  or click on the installment you are interested in below:

 

UPDATE 1- SWISS SIDE HADRON INTRODUCTION

UPDATE 2- SWISS SIDE HADRON INITIAL SPECIFICATION

UPDATE 3- HAVE YOUR SAY IN THE HADRON SURVEY

UPDATE 4- CFD (COMPUATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS) OPTIMISATION

UPDATE 5- HADRON SURVEY INITIAL RESULTS

UPDATE 6- STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS

UPDATE 7- CFD OPTIMISATION RESULTS

UPDATE 8- HADRON GRAPHIC DESIGN SURVEY

 

 

 

Don’t forget to sign up to our update newsletter for a chance to win a set of Hadrons! You can do so on the Hadron page: www.swissside.com/hadron
 

February 17, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO PROJECT UPDATE 8

 
HADRON GRAPHIC CONCEPTS ARE READY AND WE WANT YOUR INPUT!
 
It’s time for Swiss Side to choose graphics for the new Hadron Aero Wheel Project and we want your help in the selection process. We welcome you to get involved in the Hadron Project by previewing our graphic options and answering a few short questions in the survey below.
By participating in the process you will be entered to WIN a FREE SET of the NEW HADRON AERO WHEELS.
 
We also welcome you to get updated on the entire Hadron Project at: http://www.swissside.com/hadron
 
Thanks for getting involved and being a part of the Swiss Side Hadron Project.
 

 

 

February 3, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO PROJECT UPDATE 7

 

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) OPTIMISATION RESULTS.

 

In our ‘Update 4’ (http://www.swissside.com/596), we explained our CFD optimisation approach using the latest methods from Formula 1. This has been possible thanks to the insider knowledge brought to the team by Swiss Side co-founder Jean-Paul Ballard, with over 13 years of experience working in Formula 1 in the field of Aerodynamics.

Now the results are in! …

 

GEOMETRY AND MESH:

Each of the Hadron wheel geometries to be tested are output from our parametric CAD model and meshed using snappyHexMesh (part of OpenFOAM). The CFD mesh is prepared using the best possible resolution for the requirements, which in this particular case consists of approximately 11 million cells. Powerful computer clusters are required for computing the results which is only possible with the help of our very experienced CFD partners.

 

OPTIMISATION PROCESS:

Limits are applied to the range of each of the pre-determined shape change parameters for study. From here, we use a complex mathematical process which defines groups of specific parameter variations to calculate. These particular shapes are then computed in CFD and the results analysed.

Using a mathematical interrogation process of the results together, we are able to determine how each parameter influences the trade-offs between the various performance measures. In our case, we are most interested in the Drag and Steering Moment effects. Recapping from ‘Hadron Update 4’, our performance function looks as follows:

 

As the cross wind (yaw) conditions occur with varying frequencies, it is important that this is correctly considered in the weighting system. This clearly varies from course to course depending on the predominant wind conditions which occur. The following graphic shows a typical cross wind frequency distribution.

 

The side force and steering moment response is also tied directly to the cross wind frequency, as these play a increasing role with increasing yaw angle, when the reaction forces exceed a minimum level which then begin to affect the rider.

 

OPTIMISATION RESULTS:

Via the combination of CFD calculations and mathematical prediction, with numerous loops and refinements, using this process we are then able to map the frontier of the possible performance achievable within the shape parameter range.

The graph of the final results below shows the yaw (cross-wind) weighted values of drag and steering moment. A perfect design (low drag and low steering moment) would sit in the bottom left corner. The boundary of the plotted results (grey points) represents the limits of performance possible within the range of rim shape parameters.

There is a clear trade-off between drag and steering moment. The final design choice depends on the relative weighting given to these two measures as defined by the Performance Weighting System.

The final choice, (around which further detailed refinements were made), was ‘Option 34’. As can be seen, compared to ‘Option 29’ a 1% increase in drag offered a 20% decrease in steering moment. This offered the best weighted performance as per our performance function.

 

TYRE PROFILE SENSITIVITY:

As a part of the optimisation, a final tyre sensitivity study was made. As in Formula 1, the tyres are dominant features of the aerodynamic system and can hugely influence the flow. This is equally the case with a bike wheel.

The various extremes of tyre shapes were scanned. There were calculated in CFD together with our wheel profiles to ensure that the developed shapes behaved acceptably.

It is however important to note at this point that the flow separation (stall) point on the tyre, which occurs at higher cross-wind angles, is very difficult to predict accurately in CFD. Other real life parameters such as surface roughness and tyre mounting variation on the rim can equally play a large role. So our sensitivity study here was a rough guide for us in preparation for our more detailed tyre evaluation in the windtunnel.

 

FINAL RESULTS & VISUALISATION:

Our final result gave excellent performance with extremely low predicted drag for a minimal level of steering moment. Again it is important to highlight that the performance weighting method used for the Hadron optimisation, was designed to produce a wheel which gives the best all round real world aerodynamic efficiency and consequently the best overall real world performance. It might not necessarily result in the lowest drag number at a single high yaw point eg. 20 degrees, but will offer the lowest overall combined drag during a riding session.

The following, are a series of visualisations which are also used as part of the design and optimisation process, to better understand the flow fields generated by the wheel and the associated results.

 

 

 

Pressure contour slices vertically through the wheel at 6 degrees cross-wind angle

 

Flow field through wheel centre with varying cross-wind angle

 

 

NEXT UP…

Stay tuned for our next installments-

 

Update 8 – Hadron Graphic Design Survey’.

Have your say and vote on our graphic design concepts for the new Swiss Side Hadron wheel set !

 

Update 9 – Windtunnel Testing’.

Here we will put our CFD development methods to the ultimate test when we test the Hadron prototypes in the windtunnel !  We can tell you already that the results are extremely impressive !

 

 

If you haven’t followed the rest of the Hadron development process, catch up at www.swissside.com/hadron  or click on the installment you are interested in below:

 

UPDATE 1- SWISS SIDE HADRON INTRODUCTION

UPDATE 2- SWISS SIDE HADRON INITIAL SPECIFICATION

UPDATE 3- HAVE YOUR SAY IN THE HADRON SURVEY

UPDATE 4- CFD (COMPUATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS) OPTIMISATION

UPDATE 5- HADRON SURVEY INITIAL RESULTS

UPDATE 6- STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS

 

Don’t forget to sign up to our update newsletter for a chance to win a set of Hadrons! You can do so on the Hadron page: www.swissside.com/hadron

 

 

January 24, 2014

Swiss Side Franc Wheels Receive Three Excellent Reveiws

Swiss Side is proud to announce that their Franc Wheel Set has received three excellent reviews from major cycling media outlet in last couple of weeks.

Click Here for the CycleEXIF Review

Click Here for the Road Cycling UK Review

Click Here for the Bicycle Network Australia Review

In the market for an Aero Wheel? Click here to join the Hadron Project and help us design the new Swiss Side Aero wheelset. You could win the first production set!

The Swiss Side Guarantee
Swiss Side uses the same factory and has the same base components, quality and level of engineering as the “Big Brands” at a price that is 40% less. Swiss Side quite literally has incredible products at unbeatable prices. Swiss Side also uses Sapim spokes and Enduro bearings on all of their wheel sets.

January 16, 2014

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO WHEEL PROJECT UPDATE 6

 
STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS.

 

One of the core parts of the Hadron wheel development process is the structural design and optimisation of the wheel assembly. As always, our goal at Swiss Side for the Hadron is to engineer an absolute top-level wheel set in its category and to bring it to the market at a price 40% below that of the leading brands. With the Swiss Side team’s wealth of experience from Formula 1 and the sports product design sectors, together with clever engineering choices, this has, once again, been made possible. In this update, we detail the methods used and the engineered choices made in the structural design process for the Hadron wheel set.

 

The key criteria which drive any wheel design are weight, stiffness, strength and durability. The rim design, hub design, spoke count and spoke type all play a role in these criteria. Also the materials and construction strongly influence the design process. Carbon fibre, aluminium and steel all have quite different properties and characteristics which influence the design. Together with the material choice, the construction of rim (e.g. clincher or tubular) impose different design constraints. Nonetheless, the step-by-step method we use is the same regardless and we apply the same approach across our entire pallet of wheel models… St. Bernard,  Heidi,  Heidi Shadow,  Franc,  Gotthard,  Hadron and Matterhorn.

 

 

SWISS SIDE’S STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS METHOD

 

1. DESIGN TARGETS:

Our structural design targets for the Hadron were to make the wheel set as light weight as possible but strong enough to cater also for heavier riders, as well as, all types of roads, smooth or rough. From a usability and end price point of view, we wanted to keep an aluminium clincher rim structure and braking surface. We also focus heavily on our stiffness to weight criteria. How stiff is stiff enough? Our target here was to offer good lateral stiffness performance without making the ride totally uncomfortable in terms of vertical stiffness. Finally, nothing short of excellent was the target for durability. In summary, for the particular wheel construction and aerodynamic profile depth we are designing, our target weight is in the mid-1600g range.

 

 

2. FIRST CONCEPT:

With the targets above in mind, our initial specification was as follows:

 

Rim Construction

For the rim construction we have been testing prototype hybrid aluminium-carbon clincher wheels for two years to assess their performance and durability. (See photo further below). This construction consists of a minimum profile structural aluminium rim with a non-structural bonded carbon fibre fairing. The huge benefit of this construction is that any shape and depth of aerodynamic rim profile is possible without impact on the structure. Also aluminium braking surfaces are kept for optimum braking performance, as well offering no hassle to swap between aero wheels and standard training aluminium wheels. This is a very versatile solution and the weight penalty compared to a full carbon clincher equivalent is absolutely minimal, but for a fraction of the cost to produce. We have been extremely impressed with the prototypes and therefore chose this construction for further optimisation for the Hadron wheel project.

 

Spokes & Spoke Count

To ensure excellent strength, durability and optimal aerodynamics for the Hadron, a spoke count of 18-front and 24-rear was chosen. For the front, the 18 ‘straight pull’ spokes are arranged in a purely radial configuration. For the rear, our much developed ‘tension optimized’ rear hub with ‘2-to-1’ spoke lacing configuration was the natural choice. This features all ‘straight pull spokes’ with 8 radial spokes on the non-drive side, and 16 cross-laced spokes on the drive side. This offers lower overall and more balanced rear spoke tension for the same resultant stiffness, coupled with improved deflection response characteristics with wheel bump.

For optimal durability and aerodynamics, clear choice was for the market leading Sapim CX Ray spokes. These offer the absolute minimal aerodynamic section, with the lightest possible weight but with the highest fatigue (load cycle) life of any spoke on the market.

Hubs

For the Hadron we are using Swiss Side’s absolute top end ultra-light straight pull hubs. These are our tried and proven designs used on all our top end 2013 wheel models.

The front hub consists of a minimal design for the lowest possible aerodynamic drag and weight. The rear hub features spoke tension optimized flange designs with easily interchangeable and simple to maintain cassette body.

We use only the best quality sealed cartridge bearings from Enduro for minimal maintenance and uncompromised performance. A bearing choice of top end stainless steel or ceramic-hybrid is available.

 

3. FEA- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:

The Finite Element Method of structural modeling is vital to the design process. Using the computer models of our wheel designs, we can apply virtual loads to the assembly to allow us to look at the internal stresses in the wheel structures, in turn allowing us to optimise the design of the individual components.

 

It is very important to correctly simulate the real life loading conditions. This is not a trivial task as many forces are in play. These include the spoke tension, tyre pressure, plus the vertical and side forces transmitted via the tyre contact patch, through the wheels into the bike frame.

 

In our FEA process, we model the true wheel assembly geometries and importantly the individual materials and associated properties of each component in the wheel. We also need to be careful to correctly model the interface between the components so that the wheel structure reacts as it would in reality. Like this we can identify areas of critical stress where reinforcement is necessary but also areas of low stress where material can be removed to reduce weight. We can also estimate the expected wheel stiffness and deflection under load.

 

An image of the Hadron front wheel structure with amplified

deflection in a fully loaded configuration.

 

Link to Dynamic deflection video here

 

Another very important consideration in analyzing the FEA results is fatigue. Fatigue is the cyclic loading of a structure. In a bicycle wheel, with every revolution the spoke tension changes and the rim bends. This results in variable loads in all the components of the wheel. As time goes on, the number of load cycles also accumulates. Time microscopic cracks unavoidably occur at areas of stress concentration. For example, on a bike wheel, this typically occurs around spoke holes. The local stress at the tip of the cracks is further increased causing it to then propagate through the structure, eventually causing it to fail.

 

There are many additional considerations which affect the fatigue life. Most importantly, the type of material used. Different materials have different fatigue characteristics. Steels typically have level of stress where the fatigue life is infinite (known as the endurance limit) whereas this is not the case with aluminium. The metallurgical microstructure also plays a major role. Cast metallic components have a much more brittle structure than forged or extruded components for example, causing cracks to propagate faster and at lower stress levels. Surface quality, finish and any surface treatments also play a role.

 

Therefore, the true allowable level of stress in the components needs to be carefully considered hand in hand with the fatigue life so as to ensure the durability of the product.

 

However FEA is just a simulation of an ideal world and is not the be all and end all. There are many other factors which influence the real structure and loading such as variability in the production and manufacturing tolerances. The way people use and even abuse their wheels plays a role, but also environmental considerations such as temperature, salt, grit, and the associated abrasion and damage. All this needs to be considered carefully and a certain margin of safety in the design needs to be applied. Ultimately, real life testing and experience is invaluable and plays an equally important role in the design process.

 

 

4. DESIGN OPTIMISATION:

Once we have a complete overview of the FEA results, we can build a better picture of what challenges or compromises each design may present. We then go through a process of comparing the weights, stiffness, production challenges etc, between the various designs to hone in on a final direction. The input from our customers, followers and team riders is also important here as the end goal is to produce the most desirable wheel design for our customers. All of these factors are considered for defining the ultimate design specification for a final detailed loop of design and analysis.

 

 

5. PROTOTYPE TESTING:

After a few loops of refining the design, prototypes are produced for testing and evaluation. From our design and experience at Swiss Side, but also together with that of our manufacturing partners, we begin the testing process. Remember that Swiss Side uses the same manufacturers and quality of production as the “Big Brands”.

Our testing protocol looks as follows:

 

  1. Stiffness testing.

-          The static (not rotating) lateral and vertical deflections of our wheels are tested at various loads and at various points on the wheel to ensure that stiffness is at the levels expected.

 

  1. Endurance bench testing.

-          We use a test bench which can apply combinations of vertical and lateral loads to the wheel whilst rotating at a set speed. This rig runs for a set period of time under higher than normal loads to get a first look at the durability of the design. If it passes this test, we proceed to the next level.

 

  1. Destructive bench testing.

-          Using the same test bench, the wheel is run again at a fixed combined vertical and lateral load which is significantly higher than what the wheel would see on the road. The wheel is tested at set speed and must withstand the loads for a certain period of time before failing.

 

  1. Road testing, structural performance evaluation.

-          Once the wheel has passed the bench testing steps, it’s out onto the road for the structural performance evaluation. Here we test the wheel out under some extreme riding conditions to ensure that it performs as expected. This includes sprinting acceleration tests, high speed braking tests, coasting, and riding some pretty nasty routes with plenty of potholes!

 

  1. Road testing endurance evaluation.

-          In this final step we tap into our team riders to muster kilometers on the prototype wheels. The wheels are swapped around between the riders to maximize the mileage. Once a set distance has been covered on the prototypes without issue, the stamp of approval is given for production.

On the left: The latest Hadron prototype structural test wheels (without carbon covers).

On the right: The first evolution Hadron test wheel set, endurance testing since mid 2012.

 

 

6. FINAL DESIGN CONFIRMATION AND RELEASE:

Once the new wheel design has passed through the rigorous loops of design, optimisation and testing, it’s all go for production. In parallel, numerous other parts of the project plan such as the graphic design, packaging, accessories all come together at this point. A new wheel is born!

 

Stay tuned… HADRON is coming!

 

January 15, 2014

Cycleexif.com Review the Franc Evo-3 Wheel Set

Catch up on what cycleexif.com has to say about the Franc Evo-3 Wheel Set in their recent review.

Click here to read more!

 

January 7, 2014

The Hadron Survey 1 Results Are In

Swiss Side would like to send a big thank you to everyone who participated in the first Hadron Aero Wheel Project survey. “We’ve received an overwhelming response with participants providing feedback from more than 30 countries around the globe,” says George Cant, Design & Creative Director for Swiss Side. “This customer input is going directly into our design efforts for the Hadron wheel.”
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The direction is clear and the results are here!
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With this information Swiss Side be moving the development process forward and over the coming weeks they’ll be sharing key parts of the development process.
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Sign up now and catch up on previous developments on the Hadron Project HERE
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How does Swiss Side offer this exceptional quality at such low prices? Find out HERE.
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See how Swiss Side wheels are made with the factory tour video.

December 17, 2013

SWISS SIDE HADRON AERO WHEEL PROJECT UPDATE 4

Computational Fluid Dynamics Optimisation Based On Formula 1 Methods
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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Aerodynamic simulation in a computer.
One of the major developments of the Hadron Aero wheel concept is a detailed aerodynamics optimisation study. Swiss Side’s goal is clear. To design an absolute top level performing aerodynamic wheel set in its category but as always, to bring it to the market at a price 40% less than the “Big Brands”.
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The first steps in this process are to simulate, understand and optimise the wheel profile shape using CFD. Wind tunnel tests will follow this. Jean-Paul Ballard, co-founder of Swiss Side, explains the reasons, pros, cons and tricks behind the CFD optimisation process with his insider knowledge from over 13 years of working in Formula 1 Aerodynamics.

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Swiss Side draws on 13 years of F1 aerodynamic design experience.

CFD OPTIMISATION APPROACH
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Targets and Performance Function:
In our approach, we wanted to make our aerodynamic development as realistic as possible. Therefore, considering real world wind conditions which riders actually see on their bikes is very important for determining the targets for our aerodynamic development. Most importantly, what air speeds do the wheels see in reality and in particular, what are the extremes of cross wind (aka yaw) angles which occur? In addition, what percentage of riding time is spent in which range of cross wind angles? Identifying these key parameters was fundamental for us in defining our performance function which we would use to evaluate each design.
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Our performance function considers aerodynamic drag over a range of yaw angles from 0 – 20 degrees. Each angle range is weighted differently in its contribution to overall performance. For example, the lower yaw angles occur much more frequently than the higher yaw angles and are consequently weighted more heavily. Also included in our performance function is the effect of the movement of the centre of pressure on the front wheel with increasing yaw angle. Since the rider’s body is, by far, the largest contributor to aerodynamic drag, shifts in centre of pressure of the front wheel cause the rider to correct the steering and consequently their body position. This is quite detrimental to the overall drag so on a gusty day this is another factor to consider for the overall aerodynamic efficiency.  Overall, our “Performance Function” looks like this:
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Our goal is simple: To produce a wheel which gives the best all round real world aerodynamic efficiency and consequently the best overall real world performance. It might not necessarily result in the lowest drag number at a single high yaw point e.g. 20 degrees, but will offer the lowest overall combined drag during a riding session.

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This approach to performance weighting is exactly the technique we use in Formula 1 car aerodynamic development. The various key aerodynamic attitudes and speeds of the car are considered such as acceleration, braking, end of straight, low speed cornering, high speed cornering etc. Each condition is weighted in a performance function in order to optimise the car performance for the best lap time around a track.

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Parameters For Evaluation:
In our CFD development, we investigate a broad range of geometric shape parameters of the rim and the boundary conditions for simulations. The geometric parameters include the rim height, width, curvature, position of wide point and more. As for the boundary conditions, these include the air speed and yaw angle.

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Another important point we are considering which draws on our Formula 1 knowhow is tyre shape. On an F1 car, the tyre shapes and the associated flow fields are one of the most dominant features for aerodynamics. This is no different for a bike rim design. Considering the tyre and rim as a wing element, the tyre forms both the leading edge at the front of the wheel, as well as the trailing edge, half a rotation away at the rear of the wheel. The interaction of the tyre with the shape of the rim profile is very important, especially at higher yaw angles. Because we understand that our customers have their own preference in tyres, we consider a range of tyre shapes in our optimsation process with the intention to minimise the sensitivity.

 

Simulation:
We perform our optimisation primarily on a front wheel, without spokes, on a partial bike model. Using a complete bike model with rider would simply drive up the model size, complexity, time and cost drastically without any significant benefit. Similarly, the effect of thin elliptical spokes like the Sapim CX-Ray spokes we will use on the Hadron is minimal and does not influence the rim shape development and would simply increase the complexity and mesh size of the model. Most important for the simulation is the presence of the fork and frame down tube blockages. In our final performance evaluation step we consider a full bike with rider.

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For our CFD work, we are using OpenFOAM, an excellent open source CFD software which is now used by numerous F1 teams, commercial and academic organisations. However as we do not have the computing power in house to achieve the level of speed and meshing accuracy we require for our simulations, we have outsourced the crunching to a leading F1 consultant. For our CFD tech savvy followers out there, we perform the majority of our calculations using a steady state solver with a RANS based turbulence model. Some final transient unsteady state simulations will be made in our final performance evaluation step.
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THE  A-B-C  OF  C-F-D
Some further background info:
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What is it? CFD is now well and truly one of the fundamental development tools in aerodynamics. It allows us to simulate aerodynamic flows in a computer and analyze and understand the flow field in a far more detailed way than is possible in a wind tunnel. Not only forces like lift and drag can be calculated but the flow and its effects can be visualized in many ways, such as in the form of pressure plots, streamlines and surface flows. It is even possible to model complex fluid flows involving heat transfer, chemical reactions, solid dynamics, and electromagnetics using CFD.
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How does it work? Keeping it simple, the fundamental physical laws of fluid dynamics are programmed into a software code. A CAD model is produced of whatever shape wants to be analysed. The volume around this shape is transformed into a mesh. Various boundary conditions are entered into the code such as what the fluid is (water, air etc), temperature, pressure, onset flow velocities, etc. Using this, the solver of the CFD software calculates how the flow moves between each node in the mesh. The more fine the mesh, the better the resolution of what is happening. For example, on the surface of the shape typically a much finer mesh is applied.
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One of the great advantages of CFD is that structurally impossible solutions can be evaluated. For example, a wheel without spokes, a bike with one wheel, a car with no wheels. There are many cases when such simplifications can make sense for reducing the size and complexity of a model, or for understanding the contribution of any individual component on the flow field.
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As computer processor speeds have improved, the viability of CFD as a development tool has boomed. A single simulation which 20 years ago took weeks on a supercomputer, today takes just a number of hours on a powerful PC. Due to the ever increasing computing power, the speed of calculation is constantly dropping and meshes have been able to become much more refined enabling ever more accurate simulation results.
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However, like any instrument, CFD is just a tool and requires specialised knowledge and experience in aerodynamics for setting up and interpreting the solutions. Poorly performed simulations can be inaccurate and even downright wrong.
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Your Swiss Side Team.